Building a Local Hemp Industry on the Western SlopeRead More
2nd annual Hemp On The Slope is July 22 at Salt Creek Ranch, Collbran, CO
Collbran, CO -- Hemp experts from Colorado and beyond are headed “Back to the Slope” for the 2nd Annual Hemp On The Slope (HOTS2) event July 22nd at Salt Creek Ranch in Collbran, CO, 40 miles northeast of Grand Junction.
HOTS2 features educational panels, presentations and demonstrations with a mini-expo showcasing a wide variety of hemp-made products and services geared to support expansion and growth of this emerging industry. Exhibitors will showcase hemp-based food and nutritional supplements, bodycare, clothing, nutraceuticals, animal wellness products, hemp paper, along with building materials, bioplastics and more. Farmers and growers can access genetics, seeds, clones, soil nutrients, irrigation technology, farming equipment, processing and lab services, legal and financial services, and wholesale options for raw materials including flower, oil, and isolates.
The #LetsTalkHemp Speaker Series from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm features more than 20 expert presenters. Topics include hemp farming, seed, clones and genetics, processing, manufacturing, legal hurdles, regulations, state and federal legislation. At noon, the “Let Them Eat Hemp: Cake” auction benefits the Colorado Hemp Industries Association. Cakes will be baked and decorated by local Collbran youth with a touch of hemp flour provided by Colorado Hemp Works. Rick Trojan, captain of the nationwide Hemp Road Trip, and Tom Dermody, executive director of The Industrial Hemp Research Foundation, will co-MC the day’s educational activities.
A legislative overview will cover the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment’s (CDPHE) new, groundbreaking policy, enacted July 1, 2017. It allows all parts of the hemp plant, including CBD and other cannabinoids, terpenes and compounds previously residing in a legal gray area to now be “officially” allowed and legal for human consumption in food and supplement products grown and produced in accordance with the Colorado Department of Agriculture hemp regulatory program. Samantha Walsh from the National Hemp Association, along with David Bush from the Hoban Law Group, two of the participating and integral parties behind the policy language, will provide an overview of what this actually means to Colorado hemp farmers and companies.
“We’re excited to share with our western slope neighbors, and those from outside the area, everything that’s happening in the changing landscape of the industrial hemp industry,” said Margaret MacKenzie, co-owner of Salt Creek Ranch and host of this hemp-centric event designed to educate the local community on the benefits of hemp. “So much has changed from a year ago,” Mackenzie continued, “it’s vitally important for us to get together, collaborate, network, and exchange ideas to build a cohesive industry at the local level.”
This year’s event is presented by Bluebird Botanicals, a Colorado-based hemp-health and wellness company whose planet-and-people-friendly, all-natural products help to enrich your spirit, calm your mind, and restore vitality to your body. Additional sponsors include Hoban Law Group, the nation’s premier cannabusiness law firm; Nature’s Root, creators of the world’s first hemp-spa; SteepFuze hemp extract coffee; and The Hemp Connoisseur Magazine, a leading voice locally and nationally for all things cannabis.
HOTS2 is produced by Colorado Hemp Company, creators of the NoCo Hemp Expo and the #LetsTalkHemp Speaker Series, bringing hemp education, advocacy and awareness to a heightened state of consciousness. We care, and you should too.
For details on tickets, exhibitors and sponsors, speakers and panels, visit www.hempontheslope.com.
Sträva RestoreRead More
reviewed by DJ Reetz
Don’t ask me to do anything before I’ve had my first cup of coffee. Seriously, the best response you’re likely to get is an indignant glare and an apathetic shrug. If it’s the morning following a rough night, that response gets even testier. Fortunately for everybody at the THC offices, we’ve got plenty of Sträva coffee on hand.
Each bag is infused with full-spectrum hemp oil derived from locally grown Colorado hemp, and every 12-ounce bag of the Restore is imparted with approximately 120 milligrams of CBD. That averages out to around five milligrams of CBD per cup of coffee. It might not be enough to replace your current CBD regimen if you’re using it as medicine, but it makes a nice addition to a cup of Joe and helps keep any caffeine jitters in check as you’re slamming your morning cups.
Some CBD companies might cut corners on the quality of the coffee when producing a product like this, but Sträva is focused on the quality of their roast. They’re a coffee company first, and their passion for quality coffee is apparent. Restore is a Colombian roast with a deep, rich aroma and taste on par with any other bagged coffee you’ll find at the grocery store or coffee shop. It’s good coffee all on its own, and the CBD is icing on a tasty, invigorating cake.
Sträva offers several varieties of CBD-infused coffees with different amounts of CBD, as well as a full line of traditional roasts. With such a wealth of options, you’re sure to find one that fits your preferences. www.stravacraftcoffee.com
Breaking Ground: 8th Annual HEMP HISTORY WEEK (2017)Read More
by Josh Davis, photo by Ben Droz, courtesy of HempHistoryWeek.com
CBD And Native American Land Rights Take The Stage At The 8th Annual Hemp History Week
The 8th annual Hemp History Week (HHW) is set to run throughout the country from June 5-11, 2017. This year’s theme is “Breaking Ground” and along with the usual interactive and educational festivities of the celebration there will be a focus on consumer awareness education in relation to CBD products. The event will feature a female farmer, the outspoken Margaret Mackenzie of Salt Creek Hemp Co., for the first time.
Hemp History Week will also bring attention to a continued dark spot on the federal government’s hemp policy, prohibiting Native American tribes from hemp cultivation on sovereign tribal lands, keeping them from research and economic opportunities.
“Though we’ve made significant strides towards lifting the federal prohibition on hemp farming in the U.S.,” says Eric Steenstra, president of Vote Hemp and executive director of the Hemp Industries Association (H.I.A.), “which is largely in part to the passage of the Congressional Agriculture Act of 2014 (Farm Bill), the current federal regulations allow only for ‘states’ to enact hemp farming programs. We are expanding our advocacy to include hemp cultivation rights on tribal lands.”
Alex White Plume, of the Oglala Lakota Sioux Tribe, is a hemp farmer and activist. In August of 2000, DEA agents violated the Sioux treaty of 1868, illegally entered the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation to destroy the flourishing industrial hemp crop that Alex had planted there.
“They (the DEA) came, they called it eradicating,” said White Plume in an interview with the H.I.A. “I called it theft. They took our economic development. But I guess because we are Lakota people they feel that we don’t have a right (to grow hemp).”
Subsequently, White Plume and his family were banned from ever planting hemp on the reservations land again. It was only in the spring of 2016 that the federal injunction against White Plum was lifted, but under federal law it is still illegal for him to plant the seed.
Origins of a Movement
The first Hemp History Week took place in May of 2010. It was a modern battle cry for public education and governmental reform that echoed our country's decades long, and often tumultuous, relationship with this productive but federally illegal crop.
Despite this fact that, the US is the largest consumer of the plant in all its forms, and the irony of this had not been lost on hemp advocates and entrepreneurs. In an effort to stimulate and grow the modern hemp industry and to remember what hemp meant to the US’s economy and culture, hemp farming advocates, the Hemp Industries Association, Vote Hemp, and several hemp brands, including Dr. Bronner's, Nutiva, Nature's Path, and Living Harvest organized the first Hemp History Week.
“The idea was to celebrate the history of hemp farming in the U.S. and raise awareness at the grassroots level about the environmental and nutritional benefits of hemp products,” says Lauren Stansbury, public affairs and media relations specialist for Hemp History Week. “At the time, there was a real need to educate consumers and lawmakers about the difference between industrial hemp and other forms of cannabis, and rally support for legislation at the state and federal levels to allow farms to take advantage of the economic opportunity of industrial hemp cultivation.”
Since its inception in 2010 organizers and advocates of Hemp History Week have sought to create country-wide, hands-on events that would give curious attendees an opportunity to touch, taste, wear and learn about this incredibly useful plant.
“The celebration has grown dramatically since its beginnings. During its inaugural year we coordinated just under 200 events,” says Stansbury. “However this year's campaign will achieve over 1,500!”
Also on the docket for this year’s festival is CBD education. Cannabidiol products have been gaining huge interest throughout the U.S., but education is needed so consumers can make intelligent decisions when it comes to buying CBD products.
“We were really excited to up our level of participation and sponsorship in this year’s HHW,” Says Josh Hendrix, director of business development and domestic production at CV Sciences, Inc. “This is our second year of sponsorship with HHW. Our products are in almost 1,200 stores across the country and HHW is a chance for us to give our retailers more educational opportunities to learn about CBD that they can then pass along to their customers. Plus they're building a house made from hemp concrete down here in Kentucky and it’s just a lot of fun to be a part of something so special.”
Vote Hemp and the HIA estimates the total retail value of hemp products sold in the US in 2016 to be at least $688 million, which means the retail market for hemp food, body care, CBD and supplements by 25 percent from the ear prior. Currently, 32 states have legalized industrial hemp farming in accordance with the Farm Bill, but more needs to be done.
"The hemp industry still faces a number of challenges and barriers to full-scale farming of industrial hemp,” says Steenstra, “including the inability of hemp farmers to obtain crop insurance and financing, difficulties involved with sourcing certified hemp seed, lack of adequate processing infrastructure in the U.S. for raw hemp materials, barriers to interstate commerce for hemp products, and the potential exclusion of hemp-derived CBD products as nutritional supplements.”
There is still a lot to be done on this front, so come out to your local Hemp History Festivities and learn more about hemp during Hemp History Week.
Hemp History Week runs June 5-11, 2017.
To learn about events in your area or to volunteer visit www.hemphistoryweek.com
Legal or Not: The Precarious Place of Hemp in North DakotaRead More
By Matthew Van Deventer
Outside Hettinger, North Dakota, a small town of about 1,200 residents in the state’s southwest corner, Lyle Freerksen was at work when he got a call from someone claiming to be from the North Dakota Department of Agriculture. They needed to take samples of his hemp crop for a routine THC test. This was no surprise to him, and he had nothing to hide. Freerksen had given all of his contact information to local authorities and made himself available for any and all questions or concerns. More importantly, he had a valid license to grow hemp from the North Dakota Department of Agriculture (NDDA) and understood that at some point they would need to test his crop.
Later that day, Freerksen called the NDDA representative to offer his assistance and meet him at his house for the samples. However, they had already taken samples and needed to meet Freerksen to sign some papers.
“Which I though was kind of fishy, because I felt like I should be present for when they take their samples, because who knows where the samples are coming from,” says Freerksen. “But then again, I had no reason to suspect foul-play of any kind. I thought I was being open and honest with everything.”
When Freerksen got to the meeting location, there was a uniformed police officer and another man in plain clothes; nothing beyond what he would expect of a routine crop inspection. However, they arrested Freerksen and charged him with cultivation of a controlled substance and intent to distribute.
By then, the Bureau of Criminal Investigations had searched his house, confiscated his guns, cash, unused pipes and a bong, and burned down all 273 hemp plants he’d been cultivating.
Freerksen asked if they had tested his plants. They said they had, and Freerksen asked what the THC level was. They didn’t know.
“I gave it my test and my test said it’s marijuana,” Freerksen remembers the plain clothes officer saying. They threatened him with 20 years in jail. However, Freerksen was only in jail for about three days, and the charges were lowered to possession of paraphernalia.
He estimates his crop was worth about $140,000. Freerksen said once he got out of jail, he heard that every road leading up to his house was blocked off a half mile away, police were heavily armed and reinforcements had come from several surrounding towns. When he returned home, he found they had burned his hemp plants by circling them with his own firewood and cut every watering hoses about six inches from the spigot, burning those as well.
“What Mr. Freerksen had was a permit from the North Dakota Department of Agriculture for the growing of hemp. They were very clear in the letters they sent to him and in the permitting process that that does not, by itself, give him permission to grow hemp,” says State Attorney Aaron Roseland of Adams County, North Dakota, who was charged with reviewing the case.
Roseland says, the permit “opens the door” for Freerksen to apply to the state’s pilot program or work with a university, so that he can grow hemp under an entity licensed with the Drug Enforcement Administration.
While Freerksen denies getting any such communication from the NDDA saying he couldn’t grow hemp, he says they did warn him he wasn’t protected federally.
“I knew that growing cannabis would be illegal under federal law regardless of a state permit, yes. As is everyone else in the country currently growing hemp or marijuana under any state law that may exist in that state, medical or otherwise,” says Freerksen. To his knowledge, no DEA agents were involved in the raid.
So he reapplied for a permit on his own, went through all the necessary steps, including a background check and finger printing, and soon got a certified letter in the mail with his hemp license. After that, he heard nothing from the NDDA despite repeatedly trying to establish a connection with them and regularly inquiring about THC sampling.
According to the North Dakota Century Code, residents can grow industrial hemp so long as they have a license from the Department of Agriculture to do so.
“That’s why there was no case maintained against him and the charges are dropped. There are no criminal charges now pending against Freerksen.” Roseland continues to clarify, “Because upon review, I found there was not a factual basis to support the maintaining of a charge.”
“They gave him a license. They knew he was growing hemp. Now, if they had a question about it, why would they send out law enforcement with a search warrant—it was just completely uncalled for and heavy handed,” says Eric Steenstra, current president of Vote Hemp. “If they had a real question about it, they could have gone down there and talked to him. There had to be some confusion or major error. I have no idea what led to this, but clearly it was unfounded, because they dropped the charges.”
Steenstra was the Executive Director of Hemp Industries Association when he heard about Freerksen’s case. They offered to defend Freerksen, but he declined and took the plea. Steenstra did do some digging at the time, but North Dakota officials “weren’t forth coming about what really happened.”
For law enforcement to break down doors and burn down crops and ask questions later, only to find little prosecuting evidence is a rarity in the hemp industry. In fact, it’s the first time Steenstra has heard of something like this, and there was little to no media coverage about the case. Even the local press in a town of 1,200 hadn’t gotten wind of it.
“We were really disappointed about it. To be honest with you, I think there was some confusion there; that’s a relatively new program for them,” says Steenstra.
Today, Freerksen’s case is closed, and he has yet to see any test results from the Bureau of Criminal Investigation, who declined to comment for this story.
Freerksen says when the arresting officers returned his personal belongings he had a chance to ask them why he was arrested. One officer told him his license says he must be a part of the pilot program or a research university. THC reviewed the license and that is not the case. The other officer said the permit was illegal and that the state had no right to issue the permit, because he wasn’t a part of either of those programs, which also is untrue, according to North Dakota legislation.
To wrap it all up, Freerksen, who does not consume cannabis, got his paraphernalia back: “The last stickler, that I can’t figure out, is when I was talking to these cops about what had transpired, the cop hands me the bong in the middle of the street right in front of the courthouse. So the paraphernalia that I pled guilty to being in possession of, they handed it right back to me.”
Originally published in the Spring 2017 National Issue of The Hemp Connoisseur
CBD Fights Back: Lawsuit Filed Against DEARead More
by DJ Reetz
A lawsuit filed on January 13, 2017 aims to push back against a recent DEA decision to create a separate tracking number for “marihuana extracts” under the Controlled Substances Act, effectively codifying all cannabinoids derived from marijuana or hemp as Schedule I controlled substances. The lawsuit was filed by the Hoban Law Group in the federal 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco on the same day the new ruling was set to take effect, and seeks judicial review of the decision, claiming that the DEA has overstepped their authority in adding this definition of “marihuana extract” to the controlled substance schedule without following proper procedures to do so as outlined in the CSA. Serving as plaintiffs in the lawsuit are the Hemp Industries Association, Centura Natural Foods, and RMH Holdings.
The DEA’s announcement in the federal registry published on December 14, 2016 raised concerns amongst many in the cannabis industry that the DEA would begin to target producers and distributors of hemp-derived CBD, which would fall under the definition of “an extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis” outlined in the DEA’s final ruling.
“This is an action beyond the DEA’s authority. This final rule serves to threaten hundreds, if not thousands, of growing businesses, with massive economic and industry expansion opportunities, all of which conduct lawful business compliant with existing policy as it is understood and in reliance upon the federal government," said Hoban Law Group Managing Partner Robert Hoban in a press release.
The DEA has claimed that the ruling presented in the recent federal register amounted to little more than a clerical decision carried out in order to make tracking cannabinoid extracts easier, but many in the hemp CBD industry saw it as the first step toward a federal crackdown on the non-psychoactive cannabinoid that has thus far operated nationally in somewhat of a legal gray area.
The true impact of the classification will likely be seen in the coming months and years.
How to Create More Diversity in the Cannabis IndustryRead More
by Ngaio Bealum
There have been umpteen different articles written about how the cannabis industry needs more diversity, and a few more about how white people (white men in particular) are poised to get rich by selling cannabis, while people of color (the people that have been disproportionately affected by the extremely racist “war on drugs”) have been systematically shut out of the new cannabis industry. What can be done to fix this imbalance? I am glad you asked. And away we go…
Hire More Black and Brown People
It sounds simple, but it just doesn’t happen. Many employers don't even notice that their workforce is somewhat monochromatic, and while you may not notice, people of color pay attention to these types of things. Having a diverse workforce means you will attract a diverse customer base. It is up to the people that do the hiring to make sure that their business reflects the diversity of cannabis culture. Steve DeAngelo, owner of Oakland’s Harborside Health Center (known for being the largest cannabis dispensary in the country) likes to say, “Our new industry should enthusiastically embrace diversity as a strength, not grudgingly accept it as a legal duty.” He is correct. Studies show that businesses (any businesses, not just canna-businesses) with a diverse employee base make more money and are more successful. Having a diverse workforce helps the bottom line, so even if “social justice” isn’t part of the business plan, if the only goal is to make money, it still makes sense to be diverse.
The idea that being in the cannabis industry is a good way to have a legitimate career is still a new concept. A lot of people with good business acumen and a skill set that aligns with what this new industry needs have yet to consider the cannabis industry as a viable option. With a new wave of legalization on the horizon (five states have adult-use cannabis legalization initiatives on the ballot this year); there has never been a better time for people to get involved. While the legal risks are still higher for minorities than they are for white people, the odds that the federal government will choose to prosecute legitimate cannabis businesses acting in accordance with state law are extremely low. There are some groups (the Minority Cannabis Business Association and the newly formed California Minority Alliance come to mind) that can put employers in touch with qualified prospects. Throw a job fair, go to under-served communities and let them know that the cannabis industry is hiring.
Ancillary Businesses Should Get Involved
The cannabis industry isn't just growers and budtenders. Accountants, lawyers, engineers, event planners, architects, carpenters, food service professionals, marketers, IT professionals, graphic designers, copywriters and other businesses can all find a spot in the circle. Entrepreneurs of color should seek out cannabis businesses and look for ways to get involved. Alaska based activist Charlo Greene produces a series on cannabis diversity summits in different towns across the country (www.gogreene.org). These events can be a good way to network with folks that are already in the cannabis industry.
Lower the Barriers to Entry
Getting started in this new industry is expensive. New permits sell for thousands if not hundreds of thousands of dollars. Many folks don't have the financial backing to get involved. Just going to a cannabis business conference can cost upwards of two or three thousand dollars once you include the costs of travel and accommodations. Conferences and Associations need to start offering scholarships and no cost/low cost options to those who may have the desire and the skills, but not the money to get started. Making sure that the people that have been most affected by the drug war at least get a chance to be a part of the new paradigm is vitally important.
Remember how this started
Cannabis legalization wasn't always about millions of dollars of revenue and profits. Sure, money has always been a factor in the argument, but really, folks just wanted to stay out of jail and smoke weed free from the threat of arrest. California’s Proposition 215 (The 1996 medical marijuana initiative that got this whole joint rolling) was started because activists wanted to keep the police from arresting people living with HIV/AIDS and cancer. I hate to sound like an old hippie, but to ignore the compassion and equality ingrained into the history of cannabis legalization in favor of naked capitalism is to invite bad karma. Working to address the harms done to communities of color by cultivating business and hiring from within those communities invites good karma.
All of these suggestions are fairly simple to accomplish. It just takes a little willpower and a bit of mindfulness. It is easy to get caught up in the day-to-day actions of running a successful business, but it is vitally important to be aware of and to respect the vitality and diversity of the entire cannabis community.
Originally published in the Fall 2016 National Issue of The Hemp Connoisseur
Does CBD Convert to THC When Ingested? The findings from one study conclude it is possible.Read More
by Dr. Nicola Davies
Many people may be aware that cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant. New research, however, seems to indicate that this isn’t actually correct.
Cannabis strains high in CBD are popularly used as anti-inflammatories, as muscle relaxants and as general analgesics. Cannabis plants with high levels of delta 9–tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), on the other hand, are often smoked or ingested in order to produce feelings of euphoria and concomitant reductions in stress. Though high-CBD strains are often associated with indica varieties and high-THC with sativa varieties, this is not necessarily the case.
Executive Director of Wo/Men’s Alliance for Medical Marijuana (WAMM), Valerie Corral, wrote in a 2007 unpublished study titled “Differential Effects of Medical Marijuana Based on Strain and Route of Administration: A Three-Year Observational Study” that, “Patients did not note major differences between the cannabis sativa and cannabis indica strains.” Corral concluded, “We hope that a reliable and accessible means of analysis will become available in the near future.”1 Corral’s hopes for the future are closer to being realized. New research carried out by Kazuhito Watanabe (PhD) and his associates at Daiichi College of Pharmaceuticals, Japan, resulted in a paper titled, “Conversion of Cannabidiol to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Related Cannabinoids in Artificial Gastric Juice, and Their Pharmacological Effects in Mice.”2 The research has shown that variations in gastric juices can lead to a different result from that expected when taking CBD. So far, testing has only been carried out on mice and artificial gastric juices have been used, but the results provide food for thought and may pave the way for further studies with human participants.
Essentially, the study by Watanabe and his team has demonstrated that when CBD comes into contact with an artificial gastric juice, the non-psychoactive CBD is converted by those juices to the
psychotropic element delta 9–tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), as well as 9α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol (9α-OH-HHC) and 8-hydroxy-isohexahydrocannabinol (8-OH-iso-HHC). These two latter cannabinoids, known together as HHCs (hexahydroxycannabinols), were found to have THC-like effects on the laboratory mice. The researchers do point out, however, that the effects of the HHCs were not as strong as those of actual THC.
The main objective of the research was to show that THC is not the only psychoactive component of cannabis. The results suggest that sufficient attention needs to be paid to HHCs and their effect when they are combined with gastric juices during the digestive process. This could explain the anomalies in results for previous studies when the effects of CBD were tested on humans. As studies have so far only been conducted on mice, further research is required with humans to establish its applicability in the real world.
What causes the change to occur?
When people ingest cannabis in cakes or cookies, these usually contain some kind of sugar. The stomach becomes more acidic due to the sugars in these foods, as well as in any alcoholic drinks consumed when smoking or ingesting CBD. This acidity accelerates the change from CBD into THC, two HHCs and cannabinol (CBN).
What did the scientists measure?
The researchers began from the baseline of what has already been established about the effects of THC on the body: loss of sensation, drop in body temperature, prolonged sleep and reduced pain perception. The four aspects they chose to test were catalepsy (the loss of sensation or consciousness, inducing a rigid body), hypothermia (an abnormal drop in body temperature), pentobarbital induced sleep (deeper sleep when a barbiturate is given) and antinociception (the reduction in sensitivity to painful stimuli).
How did they do it?
Watanabe and associates isolated and purified THC, CBD and CBN from cannabis leaves using previously tried and tested methods. They placed the cannabinoids into an artificial gastric juice to observe the effects. Using a gas chromatograph, a sample solution was injected into the instrument, which then entered a gas stream of either helium or nitrogen used as carrier gas. The sample was then directed into a tube that separated the components. Results showed that CBD broke down into THC, two HHCs and CBN. To test the effects of these CBD components, the researchers administered small quantities to their experimental mice.
...when CBD comes into contact with an artificial gastric juice, the non-psychoactive CBD is converted by those juices to the psychotropic element delta 9–tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
How were changes measured and what did they find?
To test catalepsy, 24 mice were separated into three groups of eight and injected with THC, HHCs and CBN. Researchers waited fifteen minutes for the cannabis to take effect, then placed the front paws of the mice on a bar. If the mouse did not move its paws within 30 seconds, it was regarded as having a rigid or cataleptogenic reaction. The injection of THC affected the mice the most, and the HHCs were less effective than THC, but more so than CBN, which had very little effect.
For the hypothermic reactions test, mice were again divided into groups of eight and injected with THC, HHCs and CBN, respectively. Two hours later, their rectal temperature was taken. The results were consistent with the test for catalepsy, with THC causing the highest temperature drop. HHCs had an effect, but not as pronounced as THC, while injections of CBN did not produce any significant drop in temperature. Through its action on the central nervous system, THC prolongs deep sleep, so for this test, the researchers injected the mice first with the cannabinoids, and then gave them sodium pentobarbital fifteen minutes later to see how their sleep was affected. As expected, the mice given the THC slept the longest, those given HHCs slept less and those given the
CBN were least affected.
For the sensitivity to pain test, the mice were again given injections of the various cannabinoids, then twenty minutes later were given a 0.7 percent acetic acid solution and assessed on the amount of writhing produced by measuring abdominal contractions. Again, the results were consistent: THC produced the strongest block to pain with least writhing, the HHCs were somewhat effective, but less than THC and CBN had very little effect on pain blocking compared to the placebo group.
Further studies needed
Much research has involved the administration of THC and CBD to patients for symptoms such as fibromyalgia, Crohn’s disease and insomnia, but researchers have been circumspect in declaring their results and have called for further testing. Watanabe’s research, though conducted on mice, may hold true for humans – but that must be the subject of future studies. As Georgetown University Medical School’s Dr. Robert du Pont pointed out, there are an estimated 400 components in the cannabis plant, making it difficult to determine exactly which component is providing relief when cannabis is ingested for medical reasons.3
Could anomalies in results have resulted from the way gastric juices break down CBD within the human body? In a 2016 study published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, by John Merrick and associates, it was noted that, “In recent epilepsy research, pediatric subjects receiving orally administered CBD showed a relatively high incidence of adverse events (≤44%), with somnolence (≤21%) and fatigue (≤17%) among the most common.”4 This led the researchers to more closely investigate the accepted premise that CBD is non-psychoactive. They came to the conclusion that, “Gastric fluid without enzymes converts CBD into the psychoactive components Δ9-THC and Δ8-THC, which suggests that the oral route of administration may increase the potential for psychomimetic adverse effects from CBD.”
From recent studies, it seems that there is a need to find delivery methods that decrease the risk of psychoactive cannabinoids forming during the digestive process. To this end, Zynerba Pharmaceuticals Inc. has developed an innovative transdermal synthetic cannabinoid treatment that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract, thus avoiding bioconversion to psychoactive THC.5 This may be the way forward in using CBD to assist patients with medical conditions without them inadvertently experiencing unwanted psychoactive effects.
1. Corral, V.L., 2001. Differential effects of medical marijuana based on strain and route of administration: a three-year observational study. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, 1(3-4), pp.43-59.
2. Watanabe, K., Itokawa, Y., Yamaori, S., Funahashi, T., Kimura, T., Kaji, T., Usami, N. and Yamamoto, I., 2007. Conversion of cannabidiol to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoids in artificial gastric juice, and their pharmacological effects in mice. Forensic Toxicology, 25(1), pp.16-21.
3. Kleber, H.D. and Dupont, R.L., 2012. Physicians and medical marijuana. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(6), pp.564-568.
4. Merrick, J., Lane, B., Sebree, T., Yaksh, T., O’Neill, C. and Banks, S.L., 2016. Identification of Psychoactive Degradants of Cannabidiol in Simulated Gastric and Physiological Fluid. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 1(1), pp.102-112.
5. Zynerba Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 2016. First and Only Synthetic CBD Formulated as a Permeation-Enhanced Gel Being Developed for Refractory Epilepsy, Osteoarthritis and Fragile X Syndrome. [ONLINE] Available at: http://zynerba.com/in-development/cbd-gel-zyn002/. [Accessed 21 July 2016].
Heppermint Lip Balm by Clover's HempRead More
reviewed by Hazy Cakes
Clover’s Hemppermint Lip Balm is made with natural and organic ingredients. The list is minimal and includes shea butter, hemp oil and beeswax. The delightful mint scent/flavor is produced through a blend of peppermint and spearmint essential oils. Your lips feel smooth and moisturized after application and it lasts for a very long time. All of Clover’s products are free of artificial fragrances, dyes, sulfates, parabens, and unnatural preservatives. Get yours at www.clovershemp.com.
Beautifying Hemp Facial Cream by The Wonder SeedRead More
reviewed by Hazy Cakes
If you are a like us and are always looking for the perfect face cream to make your life complete, we may have found it! The Wonder Seed produces several quality products to make you look and feel more youthful and beautiful. This facial cream is free of all the things that you don’t want in a beauty product; no parabens, sulfates, gluten, artificial colors or fragrances. It is made with all natural ingredients and is 100 percent vegan and cruelty free.
The water lotus scent is derived from essential oils and is refreshing, not overpowering. After using this product your skin feels highly moisturized without feeling greasy. It soaks in completely, leaving nothing behind but soft supple skin. With regular continued use it can improve the texture of your skin over time. Check it out at www.thewonderseed.com.